Indiana University

Patrick Monahan

Iowa State University, B.S. (Psychology and Philosophy), 1985
The University of Iowa, M.A. (Educational Measurement and Statistics), 1994
The University of Iowa, Ph.D. (Educational Measurement and Statistics, Ph.D. Minor Biostatistics), 2002
2002 - 2008      Assistant Professor, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Indiana University
2008 - present   Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University
Adjunct Appointments:
2011 - present   Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Indiana University
2003 - present   Statistical Editor, Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
2007                 Nominated for the Indiana University - Purdue University (IUPUI) Chancellor's Excellence in Teaching Award



  • I oversee biostatistical and psychometric analyses for the IU Cancer Control Program. We have been awarded numerous NIH R01 grants including randomized controlled trials to increase breast and colorectal cancer screening, prevent smoking cessation relapse, and improve the quality of life for children and adults living with cancer.
  • I study mental health issues, primarily depression, in several areas including:
    • cancer survival (Monahan et al., Quality of Life Research, 2007; Monahan et al., Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 2008) and
    • psychiatry (Monahan et al., Bipolar Disorders, under review).
  • I am a major collaborator and lead investigator on studies that develop and validate instruments for measuring latent constructs in behavioral medicine:
    • mammography screening beliefs (Champion, Monahan et al., Journal of Health Psychology, 2008),
    • arthritis-related health beliefs (Ang, Shen, and Monahan, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 2008),
    • diabetes medications (Monahan et al., Quality of Life Research, 2009),
    • depression in Kenyans living with HIV/AIDS (Monahan et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2009),
    • humanistic qualities of medical teachers (Logio, Monahan et al., Academic Medicine, 2011), and
    • dementia screening attitudes (Boustani et al., Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2011)


My methodological research is focused in two areas of psychometrics:


  • Improving statistical methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF), including:
    • characterizing Type I error inflation under various item response theory (IRT) models (Monahan and Ankenmann, Journal of Educational Measurement, 2005),
    • developing DIF effect sizes (Monahan, McHorney et al., Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 2007), and
    • proposing and investigating modified statistical methods (Monahan and Ankenmann, Applied Psychological Measurement, 2010).
  • Improving latent dimensionality assessment methods, including:
    • developing an alternative simulation method for generating item response data (Monahan, Lee, and Ankenmann, Journal of Educational Measurement, 2007),
    • characterizing the bias of the non-parametric DETECT procedure (Monahan, Stump, Finch, and Hambleton, Applied Psychological Measurement, 2007),
    • investigating factor simplicity indices (Finch, Stage, and Monahan, Applied Measurement in Education, 2008), and
    • developing a bootstrap generalization of the modified parallel analysis (MPA) procedure (Finch and Monahan, Applied Measurement in Education, 2008)

Recent Publications (In chronological order; selected from 74 peer reviewed publications):


  1. Monahan PO, Ankenmann RD. Alternative matching scores to control Type I error of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure for DIF in dichotomously scored items conforming to 3PL IRT and nonparametric 4PBCB models. Applied Psychological Measurement. May 2010; 34(3):193-210.
  2. Malec JF, Brown AW, Moessner AM, Stump TE, Monahan P. A preliminary model for posttraumatic brain injury depression. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2010 Jul;91(7):1087-1097.
  3. Zollinger TW, Champion VL, Monahan PO, Steele-Moses SK, Ziner KW, Zhao Q, Bourff SA, Saywell RM, Russell KM. Effects of personal characteristics on African American women’s beliefs about breast cancer. American Journal of Health Promotion. Jul-Aug 2010;24(6):371-377.
  4. Skinner CS, Buchanan A, Champion V, Monahan P, Rawl S, Springston J, Qianqian Z, Bourff S. Process outcomes from a randomized controlled trial comparing tailored mammography interventions delivered via telephone vs. DVD.  Patient Education and Counseling. 2010 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 21112173.
  5. Shields CG, Ziner KW, Bourff SA, Schilling K, Zhao Q, Monahan P, Sledge G, Champion V. An intervention to improve communication between breast cancer survivors and their physicians. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 2010 Nov;28(6):610-629.
  6. Hess LM, Rong N, Monahan PO, Gupta P, Thomaskutty C, Matei D. Continued chemotherapy after complete response to primary therapy among women with advanced ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2010 Nov 15;116(22):5251-5260. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25487.
  7. Boustani MA, Justiss MD, Frame A, Austrom MG, Perkins AJ, Cai X, Sachs GA, Torke AM, Monahan P, Hendrie HC. Caregiver and noncaregiver attitudes toward dementia screening. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011 Apr;59(4):681-686. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03327.x.
  8. Logio, L.S., Monahan P, Stump TE, Branch WT, Jr., Frankel RM, Inui TS. Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the Humanistic Teaching Practices Effectiveness Questionnaire, an Instrument to Measure the Humanistic Qualities of Medical Teachers. Academic Medicine. 2011 Aug;86(8):1019-1025. PMID: 21694571.


Other highlighted peer reviewed publications (In chronological order):


  1. Monahan P, Black DW, Gabel J. Reliability and validity of a scale to measure change in persons with compulsive buying. Psychiatry Research 1996;64:59-67.
  2. Monahan PO, Ankenmann RD. Effect of unequal variances in proficiency distributions on Type I error of the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for differential item functioning. Journal of Educational Measurement Sum 2005;42(2):101-31.
  3. Monahan PO, McHorney CA, Stump TE, Perkins AJ. Odds ratio, delta, ETS classification, and standardization measures of DIF magnitude for binary logistic regression. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics Mar 2007;32(1):92-109.
  4. Monahan PO, Champion V, Rawl S, Giesler RB, Given B, Given CW, Burns D, Bigatti S, Reuille KM, Azzouz F, Wu J, Koch M.  What contributes more strongly to predicting QOL during 1-year recovery from treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer: 4-weeks-post-treatment depressive symptoms or type of treatment? Quality of Life Research Apr 2007;16(3):399-411.
  5. Monahan PO, Lee W-C, Ankenmann RD. Generating dichotomous item scores with the four-parameter beta compound binomial model. Journal of Educational Measurement Fall 2007;44(3):211-225.
  6. Monahan PO, Stump TE, Finch H, Hambleton RK. Bias of exploratory and cross-validated DETECT index under unidimensionality. Applied Psychological Measurement Nov 2007;31(6):483-503.
  7. Finch H, Stage AK, Monahan P. Comparison of factor simplicity indices for dichotomous data: DETECT R, Bentler’s Simplicity Index, and the Loading Simplicity Index. Applied Measurement in Education Jan 2008;21(1):41-64.
  8. Finch H, Monahan P. A bootstrap generalization of modified parallel analysis for IRT dimensionality assessment. Applied Measurement in Education Apr 2008;21(2):119-140.
  9. Monahan PO, Champion VL, Zhao Q, Miller A, Gershenson D, Williams SD, Cella D. Case-control comparison of quality of life in long-term ovarian germ cell tumor survivors: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Fall 2008;26(3):19-42.
  10. Monahan PO, Shacham E, Reece M, Kroenke K, Ong’or WO, Omollo O, Yebei VN, Ojwang C. Validity/Reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 depression scales among adults with HIV/AIDS in western Kenya. Journal of General Internal Medicine). Feb 2009;24(2):189-197.
  11. Monahan PO, Kroenke K. PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 western Kenya [letter to editor]. Journal of General Internal Medicine). Jul 2009;24(7):891. Available electronically: 
  12. Monahan PO, Lane KA, Hayes RP, McHorney CA, Marrero DG. Reliability and validity of an instrument for assessing patients' perceptions about medications for diabetes: the PAM-D. Quality of Life Research. Sep 2009;18(7):941-952.


I teach the graduate course Applied Multivariate Statistical Methods for Public Health, PBHL B653.


This course …


  • is designed for Ph.D. students in the IU public health program.


  • is an applied course using the SAS software.


  • emphasizes interpretations over formulas.


  • covers classic multivariate statistical techniques including canonical correlation, MANOVA, MANCOVA, discriminant analysis, principal components analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM).


  • Two special topics are briefly introduced but are not covered on exams: mixed linear models for repeated measures, and analysis of survey data from complex sampling designs.